Stress and immunity to vaccinations

Chronic stress is particularly problematic for elderly due to

#immunosenescence (gradual loss of immune function associated with aging). Older adults are less able to produce antibody responses to vaccinations or combat viral infections✨

Lifetime exposure to traumatic events is mounting especially with #COVID-19 fear✨Following the perception of stressful event, there is a cascade of changes in the nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems✨The elevated basal levels of stress hormones associated with chronic stress suppress immunity by directly affecting cytokine profiles✨✨with a Th2 shift suppressing cellular immunity in favor of humoral immunity leading to proinflammatory, Th1, and Th2 #cytokines suppressing humoral and cellular immunity. Moreover, chronic stressors are associated with slower wound healing and recovery from surgery, poorer antibody responses to #vaccination, and antiviral deficits that are believed to contribute to increased vulnerability to #viral infections (e.g., reductions in natural killer cell cytotoxicity💫✨

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